IHC Mogul Type C 25 Horsepower

IHC Mogul Model C-25-Hp
IHC Mogul Model C-25-Hp

The Manitoba Agricultural Museum holds an International Harvester Company (IHC) Mogul Type C 25 Horsepower engine in its collection.

The International Harvester Co. was formed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1902 by a merger of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Co., the Deering Harvester Co. and a number of smaller companies.  While both McCormick and Deering produced successful binders, they decided that rather than continue to compete with each other, they were better off merging. In this process a number of smaller manufacturers were also folded into the emerging company. The result was IHC which rapidly transformed the farm machinery business as this company offered an almost complete line of farm machinery for sale through their dealers.  This was revolutionary as it meant that a farmer could, if the farmer wanted, deal with only one dealer. Previous to this point manufacturers built a small number of types of equipment and sold this equipment through dealers who also sold equipment from other manufacturers. Sometimes the same dealer handled competing lines. To complicate matters, some manufacturers entered into agreements with other manufacturers to handle their equipment. Sometime times these arrangements extended across all of the geographic areas serviced by the manufacturer. In other agreements, the agreement just covered one area. It was rare that one dealer handled all equipment that a farmer may need resulting in the farmer having to visit another dealer and perhaps being “stolen” away. Having a dealership which offered all the equipment that a farmer needed would avoid this issue.

As well having an almost complete line of equipment to sell resulted in IHC being less exposed to downturns in the equipment market. Usually some portion of IHC’s equipment line was selling, generating revenue for IHC and the dealer.

IHC was relatively well financed and was in a better position to offer financing to farmers wanting to purchase IHC equipment.  Other manufacturers were not in this position and were prone to encountering serious financial difficulties if and when the agricultural markets downturned resulting in farmers not being able to meet their debt obligations.  It should be noted that banks at this time were very conservative and often did not engage in farm lending. If a farm machinery company wanted to sell equipment, it often had to be prepared to finance this equipment

Other manufacturers realized that they had to match IHC and so also began to merge or acquire other companies in order to obtain a full line of equipment.

IHC did not manufacture a line of steam engines and stayed out of this segment of the farm machinery business. However IHC did enter into stationary gasoline engine manufacture and sales.  IHC got into the business of manufacturing tractors in 1906. The first IHC tractor consisted of an IHC “Famous” single-cylinder stationary engine mounted on a Morton power chassis and featured friction drive to the wheels. As the IHC “Famous” engine came in different sizes – 10, 12, 15 and 20 horsepower, the first IHC tractors also came in these sizes.

The Morton power chassis was produced by Samuel Morton and was a four wheeled chassis with a power train and steering to which someone could add an internal combustion engine to make a tractor. Morton chassis were used by a number of early experimenters with tractors.

The friction drive used in the Morton chassis proved unsuitable under heavy load, and so was replaced by gear drive in the 1907 Type A model. The Type B superseded the Type A in 1908. Numerous modifications were made to the Morton chassis for the Type C tractor of 1909. “Mogul” name was applied to this tractor and was available in 20 and 25 horsepower versions.

IHC, by 1910, had two lines of tractors, the Mogul and the Titan, both built to completely different designs. In general the Mogul designs used a two cylinder opposed cylinder design while the Titan designs used an inline cylinder engine with the cylinders lying on their side.  The Mogul tractors were built in IHC’s Chicago plant while Titans were built in IHC Milwaukee plant.

The Mogul line was sold the McCormick Dealers while the Titan was sold by the Deering dealers.  Even through the two companies had amalgamated, IHC felt that many farmers were so loyal to one company or the other that IHC should maintain the two dealer networks. This lasted until 1920 when IHC realized that maintaining two lines of equipment was expensive and that sometimes the McCormick and Deering dealers were in competition for the same sale. The dealership network was amalgamated. In towns with both dealers, the strongest of the McCormick or Deering dealer in a town was chosen to be retained. The equipment lines were amalgamated as well and the McCormick-Deering line was born.

Massey Harris Model 25

Massey Harris 26-42
Massey Harris 26-42
Massey Harris 26-42

The Massey Harris Model 25 made its debut in 1932 and was an update of the Wallis 20/30.

Wallis had been purchased by Massey Harris in 1928 in order for Massey Harris to become a full line agricultural machinery company. Having a full line to offer farmers was thought to be an advantage at the time. This trend had been started in the early 1900s by IHC which, partially as a result of building and offering for sale every machine likely to be needed by a farmer, was very successful. Other machinery companies realized that they also needed to offer a fairly comprehensive line of machinery in order to keep their customers from going elsewhere to obtain some machine and in doing so, fall into the hands of a competing machinery company.

Wallis in 1928 was owned by the J.I.Case Plow Works which was separate from the Case Threshing Machine Company which was the company which built steam engines, Case tractors and Case threshing machines.

J.I. Case Plow Works by 1928 had been badly weakened by the competition from Fordson and Farmall tractors and the economic downturn of the early 1920s. Massey Harris purchased the company for $2,400,000. Massey Harris promptly turned around and sold the J.I. Case Plow Works name to Case Threshing Machine Company for $700,000. Case Threshing Machine changed their name to the J.I. Case Company at that time.

Massey Harris continued on selling the Wallis line of tractors under the Wallis name.  In 1932 Massey Harris decided that the tractors needed some updating and a change from the Wallis name to Massey Harris. The designs were selling as well as possible in 1932, the height of the Great Depression and if Massey Harris could extract a few more years from the Wallis designs the company could avoid making a major outlay for design and development of new tractor designs at a time when money was very tight.

The update of the Wallis 20/30 saw the four cylinder engine’s rpm increase to 1200 rpm which gave a horsepower rating of 26/41. One could order either a kerosene or distillate fuelled engine. A three speed transmission was standard as were brakes on the rear wheels. The Model 25 was painted in Massey Harris’s dark green paint scheme.

Approximately 14,000 Model 25s were sold between 1933 and 1938. In 1938 the Model 25 was streamlined and painted red, however the mechanical details remained the same. Only about 1000 streamlined Model 25s were sold between 1938 and 1946 when production of the Model 25 was ended.

The Model 25’s production run was not bad for a tractor meant to be a stop gap until better conditions returned and money could be spent on a major design effort, but then Wallis roots meant that the basic  design was in advance of the competition in many aspects. The frame was built out of a single piece of curved boiler plate which combined the crankcase, transmission case and frame into one piece resulting in a lighter yet stronger tractor. The engine used removable cylinder sleeves, hemispherical combustion chambers, an oil filter with replaceable filters and advanced materials for the time. The same basic transmission design of the 20/30 served the Model 25 and other Massey tractors finally ending with the Massey Harris 555.

Massey Harris Model 30

Massey Harris Model 30
Massey Harris Model 30
Massey Harris Model 30

The Model 30 replaced the Massey Harris 101 Junior in the tractor lineup in 1946. The Model 30 retained the four cylinder, 162 cubic inch displacement Continental engine model that was used in the Junior 101 and the Twin Power feature, however the rest of the design was brand new.  A new transmission design featured 5 speeds with speeds ranging from 2.5 miles per hour to 13.5 miles per hour.  The tractor could be ordered in standard tread or row crop configuration.

The Continental engine could be set to burn either gas or distillate. The tractor was rated at 21 horsepower at the drawbar and 30 horsepower on the belt when burning gas. The Model 30 was Massey Harris’s three plow tractor in this period.

In a production run that lasted between 1946 and 1953, approximately 30,000 Model 30s were built making the Model 30 second in popularity to the Model 44.

The Manitoba Agricultural Museum has a standard tread Model 30 in the collection.

Massey Harris Model 44

Massey Harris Model 44 - Diesel
Massey Harris Model 44 - Diesel
Massey Harris Model 44 – Diesel

Massey Harris built approximately 84,000 Model 44s in a number of different configurations between 1946 and 1953. Gas, distillate, diesel or LPG engines were offered in standard tread or row crop configurations. The tractor was also offered in orchard and vineyard versions using either gas or diesel engines.

A high altitude version of the 44 was also available however only with a gas engine.  The high altitude engine had a higher compression ratio and a carburetor with smaller jets.

The Massey Harris Model 44, in whatever fuel version purchased, used a 4 cylinder Continental engine of 260 cubic inch displacement.  The gasoline engine version produced 45 horsepower while the diesel version produced approximately 40 horsepower. The diesel engine option was offered in 1948, two years after the introduction of the Model 44.

Massey Harris 44’s can also be found with a six cylinder Continental engine identical to the engine used in the Massey Harris 101 Senior. As Massey Harris had been advertising the smoothness of a six cylinder engine, Massey Harris decided it should offer a six cylinder version of the 44 called the 44-6. As the engine had less power than the 4 cylinder it was not really popular but still sold 6,657 during a production run that lasted between 1947 and 1951. As the six cylinder engine was longer than the four cylinder engine the frame on the 44-6 had to be stretched 2 inches to accommodate the engine.

The Model 44 no matter the engine option chosen used a five speed transmission. The 44 was the first Massey Harris tractor to have live PTO which was operated by a hand clutch. Later production tractors offered a hydraulic lift for mounted implements.

The Model 44 vineyard was much narrower than a standard tread 44 and used a narrowed rear axle that caused significant problems so any 44 Vineyards that were sold, were recalled and scrapped with one exception.

The Museum has both a gas 44 and a diesel 44 in the collection. Both tractors are standard tread versions.

The Massey Harris 44 diesel was donated to the Museum in memory of Keva Kives by Phillip and Ted Kives, Keva’s sons.

Massey Harris Pacemaker PA

Massey Harris - Pacemaker
Massey Harris - Pacemaker
Massey Harris – Pacemaker

As with the Model 25, Massey Harris decided to update the Wallis 12/20 in order to get a few more years out of the Wallis design and avoid making a major outlay for research and design of a new tractor in the Great Depression era of the 1930s.

Wallis had been purchased by Massey Harris in 1928 in order for Massey Harris to become a full line agricultural machinery company. Having a full line to offer farmers was thought to be an advantage at the time. This trend had been started in the early 1900s by IHC which, partially as a result of building and offering for sale every machine likely to be needed by a farmer, was very successful. Other machinery companies realized that they also needed to offer a fairly comprehensive line of machinery in order to keep their customers from going elsewhere to obtain some machine and in doing so, fall into the hands of a competing machinery company.

Massey Harris continued on selling the Wallis line of tractors under the Wallis name into the 1930s. As the Wallis designs were updated, the new production tractors were badged as Massey Harris and a dark green paint scheme with red wheels applied. The Wallis 12/20 was redesigned in the mid 1930s with the resulting Pacemaker PA entering production in 1936. As with the Model 25 the engine speed was increased to 1200 rpm bringing the Pacemaker PA’s rating to 16/27. The Pacemaker PA used a vertical, overhead valve four cylinder engine displacing 248 cubic inches. While the Wallis designed curved boiler plate frame which combined crankcase, transmission case and frame into a one piece unit was retained, the transmission now offered 4 speeds.  Service brakes were also offered. The factory offered either steel wheels or rubber tires as options.

The unstyled Pacemaker PA was built in 1936 and 1937. A styled version of the Pacemaker PA was introduced in late 1937 and was produced until 1939. About 3000 unstyled PAs and 3000 styled PAs were built during the life of the Pacemaker PA.

The styled Pacemaker PA was offered in a standard configuration and the Twin Power configuration.  The standard configuration was mechanically identical to the unstyled Pacemaker PA. The Twin Power version however offered an operators control which increased the governor setting on the engine allowing the engine to achieve 1400 rpm instead of the standard rpm of 1200. This increased the engine’s power output by 10 horsepower. However this control, when increasing the governor setting, also blocked the transmission in neutral. This was done to prevent the increased horsepower from overloading the tractors drive train. The Twin Power option was only useable when the tractor was performing belt work. As with the styled Model 25, the styled Pacemaker PA was painted in a red scheme with straw yellow wheels.

The Pacemaker PA was offered in a row crop configuration with a tricycle front end.  However in the row crop configuration the tractor was called a Challenger Model CH. The three speed transmission of the Wallis 12/20 was retained in the Challenger Model CH but a PTO was offered. A PTO driven, foot activated implement lift was an option that could be ordered. As with the Pacemaker, the Challenger was first built unstyled then offered in a styled version with a red body and yellow wheels. The standard configuration and Twin Power configuration were also offered in the Challenger as well as the choice of steel wheels or rubber tires.

Empire (1947)


The Empire Tractor Corporation designed a general purpose 2-bottom plow light duty farm tractor  and began manufacture of the design in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania starting in 1946. The innovative feature of the design was that the design made use of a number of war-surplus components from the Willys Jeep, including the engine. Jeeps had been manufactured in very large number during the Second World War. The war ended suddenly as  result of the employment of the atomic bomb on the Japanese result. As the atomic bomb was kept very secret, contracts to produce war material including jeeps were not cut back resulting large amounts of material including jeeps and jeep components suddenly being surplus.

There were 2 models of Empire tractors.  The first model produced, the Model 88 Empire, used mainly war surplus Willys 134 cubic inch 4 cylinder engines, Warner Gear T84 four speed transmissions, Spicer model 18 transfer case with high & low range, a PTO output with dual levers and Willys rear end. Some Ford 134 cubic inch 4 cylinder engines were used as well.

The later model 90 tractors used the civilian 134 cubic inch Willys engine with the improved Warner Gear T90 transmission. These models also used the model 18 Spicer transfer case, a single lever PTO output and Willys rear end. A chain reducer was used to lower the speeds to the rear wheels and individual disk type rear brakes were used.  The tractor came with rear belt pulley, large steel deck area, tool box, headlights, rear light and spring-shock seat. Instruments included a temp gauge, amp meter, oil pressure gauge, starter button, ignition switch and motor speed governor “T” handle. The straight bar hitch pulled from under the center of the Empire making an overturn nearly impossible. With the high-low range transmission, speeds were such that the tractor could be used for low speed farm work or make a high speed trip to town for supplies. The model of the Empire changed from 88 to 90 about serial number 3,000 in early or mid 1947.  Most model 90 tractors had stamped on the data plate “88-90” as the company was using up the extra 88 serial number tags. The major change between the two models was the switch from military surplus to civilian engines and transmissions.

The tractor was originally made for exportation in the Lend-Lease Program after World War II and perhaps 2,000 were sent to South Africa, Argentina and other South American countries by early 1947. The original plan was to export all production with no intent to compete with existing US tractor manufacturers. However this plan fell through and the company was left with a large number of tractors in inventory. In the end the tractors were moved at fire sale prices to distributors in North America. 6,587 Empire tractors were built during the life of the company.

The Empire tractors suffered from being too expensive compared with small tractors, and being unable to put all their power to the ground compared with larger tractors. By 1948, Empire had stopped production and the company filed for bankruptcy.

Heider 15-27 (1920)


The Museum Collection features a 1920 Model C 15-27 tractor donated by G.A. Skardal of Baldur.

The Heider Company got its start when two brothers, Henry and John Heider set up shop in 1903 to manufacture a 4 horse evener that Henry had invented. They opened a shop in Albert Lea, Minnesota but business was so successful a bigger shop was needed and they relocated to Carrol, Iowa where a suitable building was located. Yoke, double trees, single trees, eveners up to 6 horses, step ladders and ladders were manufactured in the new plant.

In 1907, the Heider Company needed more power to operate the plant and purchased a 25 horsepower Lambert gas engine. With this engine, Henry became interested in gas tractors.

Lambert Gas and Gasoline Engine Company was an early US producer of gas engines which also was investigating gas tractor possibilities.  John William Lambert, the owner of Lambert Gas engines, was also investigating a friction drive disc gearing transmission.

By 1909 -1910 a conventional 4 wheeled friction drive tractor, the Model A, had appeared at Heider. While conventional in layout the tractor featured a friction drive transmission of Henry Heider’s design. In this design, two discs were set at right angles to each other. The disc driven off the engine was faced with compressed wood fibres. When the transmission was engaged this disc was pushed into the side of the other disc, driving it and in so doing making the tractor move. This friction transmission offered 7 speeds.  Friction drive transmissions were a feature of the Heider tractor designs that followed the Model A..

The Heider B was introduced in 1912 and while it was a success, the Model B had its problems. Henry Heider aware of these shortcomings was also aware of the need to partner with a major company with the resources to address design issues. The Rock Island Company had the financial resources and was looking for a tractor to fill out its product line. A deal was struck with Rock Island. The Model C then was designed and put into production. The Model C proved to be a great success and orders overwhelmed the Heider Company’s production facilities. Heider facing a costly plant expansion, received an offer from Rock Island to purchase the tractor line. After consideration Heider accepted the offer and sold the rights and patients regarding Heider tractors to Rock Island.  Tractor production moved to Rock Island facilties in 1916 leaving Heider to continue on with making horse equipment and wagons. Heider remained in business until 1983 making wagons. At that time the business was sold to the Wellbuilt Company.

Rock Island built the Model C for a number of years and went to produce the Model D, the Heider lift plow, Heider M2 and M1 tractors and a tractor model called the 15-27 in 1925 which appears to have been an updated Model C. Henry Heider was retained by Rock Island as a designer for a number of years after Rock Island’s purchase of the Heider tractor line

Electric Wheel All Work (1922)

electric wheel all work
electric wheel all work

The Museum has an Electric Wheel All Work tractor in the collection.

The tractor is a 1922 model and was donated to the Museum by Mr. George C. Cox of Beresford in 1958.

The Electric Wheel All Work tractor was rated at 14-28 hp and featured a 4 cylinder vertical engine mounted cross wise, engine lubrication as by combination splash and force feed, an automotive type cooling system, high tension magneto ignition a sliding gear transmission with 1¼ and 21/2 mph ahead with one reverse and bull gear and pinion final drive.

The Electric Wheel Co. was founded in 1890 to manufacture steel wheels for farm implements. Electric Wheel Co. began building a traction truck in 1908. A traction trucks were somewhat common from 1899 to about 1910 and were a frame with wheels and drive that a farmer could mount his own engine on and so make a tractor. A number of makers seem to have offered trucks.

Electric Wheel Tractor production began in 1911 with the Quincy Model O. The Allwork design was launched in 1913 with several models produced over the next 15 years. Electric Wheel also produced track-style equipment for about three years. The company ended tractor manufacture in 1929. The company continued on manufacturing wheels however.
Electric Wheel Co. was acquired by the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company in 1957.
George White and Sons sold Electric Wheel All Work tractors in Canada for a period of time.

Nilson Junior 15-30

Nilson Junior 15-30
Nilson Junior 15-30
Nilson Junior 15-30

The collection features a Nilson Junior 15-30 tractor donated by Orval Kendrick of Roblin, Manitoba.

The Nilson Farm Machine Company was formed in March 1913 at Minneapolis. Their first tractor, a three-wheeled design with a single rear drive wheel, was introduced in 1915 and became known as the Nilson “Senior” 20-40hp. In 1916 the firm, now known as the Nilson Tractor Company, moved its operations to Waukesha, Wisconsin. In 1917 the “Junior” model appeared. It was rated at 15-30hp and shared the same basic design as the “Senior”. Both tractors featured a 4 cylinder vertical engine with a three speed, sliding gear transmission, 2.5 and 5.5mph ahead with one reverse gear. An electric starter and lighting equipment was optional.

Both Senior and Junior models featured a three wheel drive. This was much along the lines as a Grey only instead of the drive drum being supported on the out board ends of the drum the drum was divided into three pieces by the tractors frame. Again with this arrangement no differential was needed however the turning circle of the tractor was negatively affected.

Both Junior and Senior Models were offered until the company ceased operations in 1929. However just how many were sold is debateable as both models today are quite rare tractors.

Nilson 2006
Nilson Junior 15-30

Grey 18-36 (1923)

grey 18-36
grey 18-36

The Grey tractor in the Museum collection is an 18-36 model built in 1923. The tractor was donated to the Museum by A.P. Fraser of Ingelow, Manitoba.

The 18-36 model possessed a Waukesha 4 cylinder vertical engine with cylinders cast in pairs and mounted crosswise; the ignition system featured a K.W. high tension magneto; the cooling system consisted of a radiator and coolant pump; engine lubrication was by a constant level splash and circulation oiling system; sliding gear transmission; enclosed chain final drive forward speed  2 to 2 ½ MPH. A self steering device could be ordered from the factory and mounted on front axle.  Electric starting and lighting equipment were further factory options.

The single drive drum did away with the need for an expensive differential. While drive drum worked well in sand it posed problems in turning. The drum had the effect of making the tractor wanting to go straight even if the steering wheels were attempting to turn the tractor.